Road Weatherlogics User Guide

Road Weatherlogics is a road weather prediction app that combines the knowledge and experience of professional meteorologists with artificial intelligence to predict future road conditions. With Road Weatherlogics, you'll know the road ahead before you leave.


Overview

Road Weatherlogics is available as both for both Desktop and mobile platforms. The user experience is identical on both Desktop and mobile and both versions are fully featured. This user guide explains how to use the different part of the app. A glossary is also provided to explain the various weather and road condition terms that are used.

Road Weatherlogics contain two main parts: Current and Forecast. Simply put, the current section of the app provides weather that is happening right now, or has happened in the recent past. The forecast part of the app shows future weather conditions. When you are viewing current information, it means what the app is showing has happened, or is happening. If you view the forecast information, the app is providing a prediction of what it thinks will happen in the future. Forecasts are available every hour for approximately the next 48 hours.

Current Weather

  • Highway conditions observed by state or provincial governments.
  • Highway cameras provided by state or provincial governments.
  • Weather radar imagery showing current areas of precipitation.
  • Reports submitted by other drivers that show the weather and road conditions that they are experiencing.

Forecast Weather

  • Forecast weather conditions produced using RWL's advanced artificial intelligence algorithms.
  • Click anywhere for a point forecast, even in locations without major roads.
  • View 48-hr forecast graphs at any point location.
  • Reports submitted by other drivers that show the weather and road conditions that they are experiencing.

Forecast View

This section describes all the features in the forecast view of the app. A screenshot of the forecast view is shown below.

Forecast - Top Menu Bar

  1. 1. Search bar feature. This feature is used when you want to search for a specific town or municipality. Simply type in the name of the town or municipality and press enter. The map will bring you to the desired location.
  2. 2. Current tab. By pressing on the current tab, you will be brought to a whole new map layer. This map layer shows current road conditions across Canada and the United States; including current radar with the ability to animate it, current images from highway cameras and current road conditions from select states and provinces. For more information on the current tab, see Section 2 of the how to use page.
  3. 3. Settings button. Settings button lets you access the subscription area, radar preferences, unit preferences and help/further information on the app. Further information on the settings section is available in Section 5.

Forecast - Map

  1. 4. Point forecast feature (red dot). The point forecast feature produces a forecast for you, anywhere in North America, simply by pressing anywhere on the map where you want a point forecast for. To view the forecast at the location of the red dot, press the graphical bar icon (#6) at the bottom of the app. More details as to what is available with the point forecast in #6.
  2. 5. Current location feature. Using your phone’s GPS data, your current location is displayed with the black cross-hairs.

Forecast - Bottom Menu Bar

  1. 6. Road layer and time. This shows the current road weather layer that has been mapped and what time the forecast is valid for. By clicking the time you can select from a list of all forecast times.
  2. 7. Map layer button. Choose your map layer with this button. Several forecast weather variables are available up to 48 hours out for all roads, including: road condition, blowing snow, hourly snowfall, hourly rainfall, hourly freezing rain, hourly ice pellets, total precipitation amount, air temperature, wind speed, wind gusts and relative humidity.
  3. 8. Graphical forecast display feature. This feature displays the point forecast up to 48 hours out for wherever the forecast point dot (feature #3) is placed, anywhere in North America. Upon clicking on this button, weather graphs are displayed, as seen in Section 3 of the how to use document.
  4. 9. Step back in time by one hour. This button changes the forecast on the map by one hour.
  5. 10. Step forward in time by one hour. This button changes the forecast on the map by one hour.
  6. 11. Toggle the forecast dot (#3) feature on and off. If turned off, clicking on the map will not move the red point forecast dot.
  7. 12. User reported conditions feature. This user reported condition feature allows you to take control of the current conditions that you are observing and report them with only a few clicks. Weather reported includes: dominant weather that you are currently seeing (rain, calm conditions, freezing rain, drizzle, snow, etc…), road conditions that you are observing (wet, dry, snow-covered, slushy, etc…) and the visibility conditions. More details on how to report with this feature in Section 4 of the how to use document.
  8. 13. Legend. Click on the legend to see what weather condition each colour represents.

Forecast - Road Condition Types

Dry road

Dry road surface

Wet road

Wet road surface

Frost

Frost road surface

  1. Dry. The road surface has not been affected by any precipitation and is not affected by any condensation, whether it be frost or dew. Therefore, the road is bare and dry.
  2. Wet. The road surface is wet from rain or from snow which melts before it can accumulate on the road. The hourly rainfall map layer offered in Road Weatherlogics can be used to see the rainfall rate. If rainfall is heavy, it could cause ponding on the road surface and create a hydroplaning risk.
  3. Frost. Frost is being deposited onto the road surface, which can cause slippery sections on the roadway. Frost occurs on roadways when the road temperature is below freezing and the road temperatures is below the environmental dewpoint temperature. As a result, deposition of ice occurs on the road.

Slush

Slush road surface

Snow

Snow-covered road surface

Ice

Ice-covered road surface

  1. Slush. Both water and snow is present on the roadway at the same time. This typically occurs when snow is falling on the road and is accumulating faster than it can melt. For snow to melt on the roadway, the road temperatures must be above the freezing mark, or chemicals must be applied to the road.
  2. Snow. Snow is present or accumulating on the roadway. Adverse driving conditions are likely.
  3. Ice. Rain is falling on the road while the road temperature is below the freezing mark. This causes ice formation on the road surface and can lead to treacherous driving conditions.
  4. Possible closure. Delays and/or closures are possible due to extreme weather conditions. This category is triggered when there is heavy blowing snow, which will cause blizzard conditions (visibility less than 400 m / 0.25 miles), heavy snow which is expected to accumulate, or freezing rain which is expected to accumulate as a layer of ice.

Forecast - Available Map Layers

This section describes the map layers that are available in Road Weatherlogics.

  • Road condition. This layer depicts the road condition type predicted by Road Weatherlogics, at the indicated time. Road conditions are determined through our proprietary model which artificial intelligence to make an accurate prediction of the expected road condition. Road condition categories are described above.
  • Blowing snow. The blowing snow layer gives the forecasted intensity of blowing snow. There are four different levels blowing snow: no blowing snow, light blowing snow, moderate blowing snow, heavy blowing snow. Light blowing snow is when the visibility forecast to be reduced to between 2 and 10 km. Light blowing snow is when the visibility forecast to be reduced to between 400 m and 2 km. Heavy blowing snow is defined as when the model shows visibilities of less than 400 m (i.e. blizzard conditions). No blowing snow means that the visibility is expected to remain greater than 10 km.
  • Hourly snowfall. The hourly snowfall layer represents how much snow fell over the previous hour. For example, if the hourly snowfall shows 0.5 cm at 2 pm, that means 0.5 cm of snowfall fell between 1 pm and 2 pm.
  • Hourly rainfall. The hourly rainfall layer represents how much rain fell over the previous hour. For example, if the hourly rainfall shows 0.5 mm at 2 pm, that means 0.5 mm of rainfall fell between 1 pm and 2 pm.
  • Hourly freezing rain. The hourly freezing rain layer represents how much freezing rain fell over the previous hour. For example, if the hourly freezing rain shows 0.5 mm at 2 pm, that means 0.5 mm of freezing rain fell between 1 pm and 2 pm.
  • Hourly ice pellets. The hourly ice pellets (i.e. sleet) layer represents ice pellet accumulation over the previous hour. For example, if the hourly ice pellets layer shows 0.5 mm at 2 pm, that means 0.5 mm of ice pellets accumulated between 1 pm and 2 pm.
  • Total precipitation. The total precipitation layer represents how much precipitation will fall from the Road Weatherlogics start time, until the selected forecast time. Total precipitation includes all types of precipitation combined, including snow, rain, freezing rain and ice pellets. For total precipitation, we assume that 1 cm of snow equals 1 mm of precipitation. For example, if there is 2 cm of snow and 5 mm of rain, total precipitation would be 7 mm.
  • Total snowfall. The total snowfall layer represents how much snow will fall from the Road Weatherlogics model start time, until the selected forecast time.
  • Air temperature. The predicted air temperature at the selected forecast time.
  • Road temperature. The predicted road temperature at the selected forecast time.
  • Wind speed. The predicted sustained wind speed at the selected forecast time. This is an average wind speed, which can be thought of as a rough average of the maximum winds (gusts) and lulls in the wind.
  • Wind gust. The predicted maximum wind speed (gust) at the selected forecast time.
  • Relative humidity. The predicted relative humidity at the selected forecast time.


Current View

This section describes all the features in the current view of the app. A screenshot of the current view is shown below.

Current - Top Menu Bar

  1. 1. Search bar feature. This feature is used when you want to search for a specific town or municipality. Simply type in the name of the town or municipality and press enter. The map will bring you to the desired location.
  2. 2. Forecast tab. Forecast tab allows you to switch back to the forecast weather mode when you are in the current conditions.
  3. 3. Settings button. Settings button lets you access the subscription area, radar preferences, unit preferences and help/further information on the app. Further information on the settings section is available in Section 5.

Current - Map

  1. 4. Current road conditions. Current road conditions are displayed as a map layer – these current road conditions are the conditions reported by each state or provincial highway authority. See the road condition legend (feature #12) to determine what the road condition is.

Current - Bottom Menu Bar

  1. 5. Umbrella. The umbrella icon toggles the radar on and off from the map.
  2. 6. The vehicle icon toggles the current provincial and state road conditions on and off from the map.
  3. 7. Step back in time by one hour. This button changes the forecast on the map by one hour.
  4. 8. The play button animates the radar imagery, and the radar imagery can be paused using this button as well.
  5. 9. Step forward in time by one hour. This button changes the forecast on the map by one hour.
  6. 10. The camera icon toggles the cameras displayed on and off from the map.
  7. 11. Refresh button to refresh the radar data and obtain the most recent radar scans.
  8. 12. Road condition legend for current road conditions. To view the road condition type, press on the colour which you want to know the road condition.
  9. 13. Radar legend. The weakest intensities are light blue (1 mm/h or 1 cm/h) while the heaviest intensities are red and purples (75 mm/h). By clicking on the radar legend, precipitation rate appears.
  10. 15. Settings button. Settings button lets you access the subscription area, radar preferences, unit preferences and help/further information on the app. Further information on the settings section is available in Section 5.

Current - Legend

The legend depicted as 13 in the image above has two parts: the radar legend and the road condition legend. The radar legend indicates the intensity of precipitation shown by the radar overlay on the map. The intensity associated with each colour can be determined by tapping on the colour. The bottom half of the legend shows the road condition types, which are described below:

  1. Bare. A bare road surface is defined as when all four wheels of the vehicle are in contact with the pavement. Bare roads can be either wet or dry. However, if the road is classified as bare and is wet, that means it is wet with no ice present. If the road was wet with some ice or snow, it would be considered "partially covered".
  2. Partly covered. A partly covered road is defined as when two wheels of the vehicle are on bare surface, and the other two wheels are in contact with a partly ice-covered road, a partly snow-covered road, or a partly snow-packed road.
  3. Covered. A covered road is defined as when all four wheels are in contact with either ice or snow. This includes when all wheels are in contact with icy pavement, when all wheels are in contact with snow-covered pavement or when all wheels are in contact with snow-packed pavement.
  4. Closed. A closed road occurs when conditions are deemed too dangerous for highway travel. This is usually due to extremely icy roads, extremely poor visibility, or impassable conditions.
  5. Unknown. An unknown road condition means that the road condition has not been reported or no data is available.


Graph View

This section describes all the features in the graph view of the app. A screenshot of the graph view is shown below.

  • 1. Black line and data points: surface temperature of the road over the next 48 hours.
  • 2. Red line and data points: air temperature over the next 48 hours.
  • 3. Road condition forecast. In this case, the road condition forecast is wet (blue).
  • 4. Road condition forecast. In this case, the road conditions forecast is dry (grey).
  • 5. You can click on any of the four graphs in the graphical display to get more details on the forecast. In this case, the precipitation graph is clicked on. This shows what type of precipitation is falling, the amount that is falling and the time at which it is falling. The forecast is available up to 48 hours out into the future.
  • 6. Precipitation forecast shows that rain is predicted (green bar) and the amount that will fall by the hour.
  • 7. Orange dots: hourly forecasted wind gusts over the next 48 hours.
  • 8. Black line and data points: hourly forecasted sustained winds over the next 48 hours.
  • 9. The latitude and longitude of the data point where the forecast is generated.

  • Settings View

    This section describes the options in the settings view. A screenshot of the graph view is shown below.

  • 1. Subscription tab feature. To subscribe to our app’s pro version, click the subscription button and you will gain access to numerous new features that aren’t available to free users.
  • 2. Preference tab feature. Change your personal preferences within the app. This includes changing whether you report your current location, the length of the radar loop (in hours), and the units in which the weather variables are displayed in.
  • 3. Radar loop length. Adjust how many hours you want the radar to loop from – the radar can be looped for one previous hour of data, two previous hours of data or three previous hours of data.
  • 4. Display units. Toggle between metric and imperial units which you want your weather variables displayed in.
  • 5. User location. Toggle on/off whether you want to report your location or not.
  • 6. Help tab feature. Help tab feature includes the about us section, frequently asked questions, terms of use, our privacy policy, acknowledgments to governmental data and our disclaimer.

  • Reporting Weather

    This section describes how to report weather conditions. There are four different report types: Dominant weather, secondary weather, road conditions, and visibility. A brief description of each report type is given below. A description of each report option is given in the next section. The image below shows a screenshot of the weather reporting view in the app.

    • 1. Dominant weather. The dominant weather type is the most prevalent weather being observed at your location. For example, if freezing rain is occurring, but there are occasional ice pellets, you would list freezing rain as the dominant weather. If no precipitation is occurring at your location, the most appropriate dominant weather would be “no weather”.
    • 2. Secondary weather. The secondary weather type is used when multiple types of weather are occurring simultaneously. The secondary weather report is a phenomena that is occurring occasionally, but is not the main weather at your location. In the dominant weather example, we gave the situation where there was freezing rain occurring, with occasionally a few ice pellets mixed in. In this case, you would list ice pellets as the secondary weather condition. If only one type of weather is occurring at your location, you should mark secondary weather as "no weather".
    • 3. Road condition. The road condition report section indicates the type of road condition you are experiencing. In general, we classify road conditions as either partially covered or covered. Partially covered means half of your vehicle or less is driving on the reported condition. If your entire vehicle is driving on the reported condition, it is considered covered. For example, if half your vehicle is driving on snow and the other half is on bare pavement, then you would report a partially snow covered road. If more than half of your vehicle is driving on snow, you would report a snow covered road.
    • 4. Visibility. The visibility report is a measure of how far a human eye can see, without the being obscured by atmospheric conditions. Various factors can affect visibilities on the roadways, including haze, fog, smoke, blowing snow, etc. When reporting visibility, your report should indicate the most prominent obstruction to visibility, using the definitions provided in the next section.


    Routing

    This section describes how to use the routing feature of Road Weatherlogics. The routing feature allows the user to see the weather conditions along an entire route before they depart. The route is optimized for trucking, which means it should remain on major highways whenever possible.

    Important Notes

    The routing service uses our road weather forecasts to show the weather conditions along your route. Therefore, the route is limited by the available weather data. The route must begin and end in the continental United States or southern Canada. The available area for routing is the same area where forecasts are available on the "forecast view" of the app. The route must also begin and end within the time frame when forecasts are available. If you select a route which ends more than 48 hours into the future, an error will be returned since forecasts are not available beyond 48 hours. For reference, you can check the last available forecast time in the "forecast view" to determine how far into the future the route may extend.

    • 1. Add waypoint. The add waypoint button triggers the waypoint inputs to appear. The user may add up to 3 waypoints per route.
    • 2. Remove waypoint. The remove waypoint button triggers the waypoint inputs to disappear.
    • 3. Origin. The starting point of the route. The Google Places service will autocomplete the address as you begin to type. Tap the desired address from the dropdown menu to select it.
    • 4. Waypoint1. The first waypoint of the route. The Google Places service will autocomplete the address as you begin to type. Tap the desired address from the dropdown menu to select it.
    • 5. Stop time1. The length of time to stop at the first waypoint. You may choose to not stop (0 min) or to stop for up to 24 hours. If you do not wish to stop at the point, but rather just pass through it, keep the stop time as zero.
    • 6. Destination. The end point of the route. The Google Places service will autocomplete the address as you begin to type. Tap the desired address from the dropdown menu to select it.
    • 7. Depart date. The departure date. Select the desired date from the menu that appears.
    • 8. Depart time. The departure time. Select the desired time from the menu that appears.
    • 9. Submit. Tap submit to show your route and the weather conditions along it.
    • 10. Clear route. If you wish to enter a new route, or just remove your route from the map, tap clear route.

    Route Weather Analysis

    Once you have submitted your route, the weather analysis will appear. The dialog shows what percentage of the route is affected by the various hazards that are listed. For example if 500 km of a 1000 km route is snow-covered, the weather analysis will indicate that the route is 50% snow covered. The same logic is used to analyze other hazardous weather conditions. The dialog also shows the departure time and expected arrival time. The expected arrival time is based on the length of the route and the estimated travel speed for a truck under normal weather conditions. We do not adjust the arrival time for weather delays because the routing information comes from a third party source.

    After you close the dialog, you will see the route plotted on the map. To get more detailed weather information along the route, you can click segments of it. When you click on a segment, a pop-up window will appear showing the weather conditions along that segment. The pop-up window will show the estimated arrival time at the segment - the weather conditions forecast is based on the expected arrival time. As noted above, we do not adjust the estimated arrival time for weather delays because the routing information comes from a third party source. In the future we hope to account for weather conditions when making travel time predictions.


    Weather Report Glossary

    This section provides definitions for all the weather and road types that drivers can report.

    Dominant or secondary weather

    This section shows all the weather conditions that drivers can report under the dominant or secondary weather types.

    Rain

    Rain on ground

    Freezing rain

    Freezing rain on branch

    Drizzle

    Drizzle on windshield

    • No weather: No significant weather is being observed and no precipitation is falling from the sky. This includes, but is not limited to, sunny skies, partly cloudy skies and overcast skies.
    • Light rain: Rain is falling from the sky at a rate where individual drops are easily identifiable, puddles form slowly after the rain begins and hardly any spray is seen when the drops land on hard surfaces. The rate of fall for light rain is 2.5 mm/h or less. The rainfall drops must be larger than 0.5 mm, otherwise the precipitation is considered drizzle.
    • Moderate rain: Rain is falling from the sky at a rate where the individual drops are not easily identifiable, puddles form relatively quickly after the rain begins falling and the spray is seen when drops land on hard surfaces. The rate of fall for light rain is between 2.6 mm/h and 7.5 mm/h. The rainfall drops must be larger than 0.5 mm, otherwise the precipitation is considered drizzle.
    • Heavy rain: Rain is falling from the sky at a rate where individual drops are not identifiable at all and rain is coming down in sheets, puddles form very rapidly after the rain begins and spray is seen several centimetres above the ground when the drops land on hard surfaces. The rate of fall for light rain is 7.6 mm/h or more. The rainfall drops must be larger than 0.5 mm, otherwise the precipitation is considered drizzle.
    • Light freezing rain: Light rain is occurring, however the drops freeze on contact with the ground, causing for ice to accrete on surfaces which results in icy conditions on surfaces.
    • Moderate/heavy freezing rain: Moderate or heavy rain is occurring, however the drops freeze on contact with the ground, causing for ice to accrete on surfaces which results in icy conditions on surfaces.
    • Light drizzle: Drizzle occurs when the precipitation droplets are smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter. These sizes of droplets are identifiable as the drops will appear to almost float in the air, while the droplets will not cause any ripples in puddles when they fall to the ground. To be considered light drizzle, visibility must be higher than 5/8 of a mile.
    • Moderate drizzle: Drizzle occurs when the precipitation droplets are smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter. These sizes of droplets are identifiable as the drops will appear to almost float in the air, while the droplets will not cause any ripples in puddles when they fall to the ground. To be considered moderate drizzle, visibility is between 1/2 and 3/8 of a mile.
    • Heavy drizzle: Drizzle occurs when the precipitation droplets are smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter. These sizes of droplets are identifiable as the drops will appear to almost float in the air, while the droplets will not cause any ripples in puddles when they fall to the ground. To be considered heavy drizzle, visibility is lower than 1/4 of a mile.
    • Light freezing drizzle: Light drizzle is occurring but the droplets freeze upon contact with surfaces near the ground, causing for ice to accrete on surfaces which results in icy conditions on surfaces.
    • Moderate/heavy freezing drizzle: Moderate/heavy drizzle is occurring but the droplets freeze upon contact with surfaces near the ground, causing for ice to accrete on surfaces which results in icy conditions on surfaces.

    Snow

    Snowing along highway

    Ice pellets

    Ice pellets on ground

    Thunderstorm Without Hail

    Thunderstorm

    • Light rain and snow: Both rain and snow are occurring at the same time. The intensity (light, moderate/heavy) is determined by the dominant precipitation type that is falling. To determine intensity, see snow and rain descriptions.
    • Moderate/heavy rain and snow: Both rain and snow are occurring at the same time. The intensity (light, moderate/heavy) is determined by the dominant precipitation type that is falling. To determine intensity, see snow and rain descriptions.
    • Light snow: Snow is falling from the sky. The snow crystals are most often hexagonal ice crystals, either branched (star shaped), unbranched (plates, columns) or aggregates of snowflakes clustered together to form one snowflake. To be considered light snow, visibility must be higher than 5/8 of a mile.
    • Moderate snow: Snow is falling from the sky. The snow crystals are most often hexagonal ice crystals, either branched (star shaped), unbranched (plates, columns) or aggregates of snowflakes clustered together to form one snowflake. To be considered moderate snow, visibility is between 1/2 and 3/8 of a mile.
    • Heavy snow: Snow is falling from the sky. The snow crystals are most often hexagonal ice crystals, either branched (star shaped), unbranched (plates, columns) or aggregates of snowflakes clustered together to form one snowflake. To be considered moderate snow, visibility is lower than 1/4 of a mile.
    • Ice pellets: A precipitation type that occurs when pellets of ice, spherical or irregular, are falling from the sky. Ice pellets must have a diameter of 5 mm or less. This precipitation type occurs when raindrops, or largely melted snowflakes, refreeze as they are falling from the sky.
    • Light rain showers: Light rain showers have the same criteria as “light rain”, however, to be considered as showers the precipitation begins and ends abruptly within a short period of time (less than 15 minutes). With showers, you often see rapid fluctuations in the intensity of the precipitation and there is noticeable brightening of the sky between showers.
    • Moderate rain showers: Moderate rain showers have the same criteria as “moderate rain”, however, to be considered as showers the precipitation begins and ends abruptly within a short period of time (less than 15 minutes). With showers, you often see rapid fluctuations in the intensity of the precipitation and there is noticeable brightening of the sky between showers.
    • Heavy rain showers: Heavy rain showers have the same criteria as “heavy rain”, however, to be considered as showers the precipitation begins and ends abruptly within a short period of time (less than 15 minutes). With showers, you often see rapid fluctuations in the intensity of the precipitation and there is noticeable brightening of the sky between showers.
    • Light snow showers: Light snow showers have the same criteria as “light snow”, however, to be considered as showers the precipitation begins and ends abruptly within a short period of time (less than 15 minutes). With showers, you often see rapid fluctuations in the intensity of the precipitation and there is noticeable brightening of the sky between showers.
    • Moderate/heavy snow showers: Moderate/heavy snow showers have the same criteria as “moderate/heavy snow”, however, to be considered as showers the precipitation begins and ends abruptly within a short period of time (less than 15 minutes). With showers, you often see rapid fluctuations in the intensity of the precipitation and there is noticeable brightening of the sky between showers.
    • Thunderstorm without hail: Local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud, which produces lightning, thunder, potentially strong winds and heavy rain. No hail is occurring, however.

    Thunderstorm With Hail

    Hail on ground

    Funnel cloud

    Funnel cloud

    Tornado

    Tornado

    • Thunderstorm with hail: Local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud, which produces lightning, thunder, potentially strong winds, heavy rain. The storm is producing hail – pieces or balls of ice which are at least 1 mm in thickness.
    • Funnel cloud: A violently rotating column of air, pendant that is attached to the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, which takes on the shape of an inverted cone. The vortex does not touch the ground and there is no debris swirl under the funnel cloud.
    • Tornado: A violently rotating column of air, pendant that is attached to the base of a cumulonimbus cloud and typically reaches the ground. If the pendant does not appear to reach the ground and debris can be seen swirling under the pendant, it is still considered to be a tornado.

    Road conditions

    This section shows all the road conditions that drivers can report under the road condition type.

    Dry road

    Dry road surface

    Wet road

    Wet road surface

    Frost

    Frost road surface

    • Dry: The road surface is free of any precipitation accumulation and is dry.
    • Wet: The road surface is wet, even though the temperature is below freezing. This is because road chemicals (i.e. road salt) has melted frozen precipitation that fell on the road.
    • Wet from salt: The road surface is wet from frozen precipitation that has fallen on the road, but this frozen precipitation has been melted through the application of salt on the road. Salt typically only melts frozen precipitation when the air temperature is above -12C (10F).
    • Frost covered: The road surface is covered by frost. More than half the vehicle is driving on frost that is present on the roadway.
    • Partially frost covered: The road surface is partly covered by frost. Half the vehicle (two wheels) or less is driving on frost that is present on the roadway.

    Slush

    Slush road surface

    Snow

    Snow-covered road surface

    Ice

    Ice-covered road surface

    • Partially slush covered: The road surface is partly covered by slush. Slush is a mix of water and ice on the road which can be caused by the application of salt to the roadway or a relatively warm road temperature. Half the vehicle (two wheels) or less is driving on slush that is present on the roadway.
    • Slush covered: The road surface is covered in slush. Slush is a mix of water and ice on the road which can be caused by the application of salt to the roadway or a relatively warm road temperature. More than half the vehicle is driving on slush that is present on the roadway.
    • Partially snow covered: The road surface is partly covered by snow. Half the vehicle (two wheels) or less is driving on loose snow that is present on the roadway.
    • Snow covered: The road surface is covered by snow. More than half the vehicle is driving on loose snow that is present on the roadway.
    • Partially ice covered: The road surface is partly covered by ice. Half the vehicle (two wheels) or less is driving on ice that is present on the roadway.
    • Ice covered: The road surface is covered by ice. More than half the vehicle is driving on ice that is present on the roadway.

    Visibility

    This section shows all the visibility obstructions that drivers can report under the visibility type.

    • No visibility issues: Visibility is not obstructed by any factors.
    • Smoke: Visibility is reduced due to smoke particles in the air.
    • Haze: Visibility is reduced due to a combination of smoke (pollutants) in the air and dust, a yellowish or reddish tinge is given to objects on the horizon.
    • Light/moderate blowing dust: Dust or sand suspended in the air that is hindering visibility. Visibilities must be above 1/4 statute mile to be considered light or moderate blowing dust.
    • Heavy blowing dust: Dust or sand suspended in the air that is hindering visibility. Visibilities must be equal to or below 1/4 statute mile to be considered heavy blowing dust.
    • Light/moderate fog: Fog is the suspension of small water droplets/ice crystals near the Earth’s surface (at eye level), causing for low visibilities. To be considered light or moderate fog, visibilities must be reduced to between 1/2 statute miles and 1/4 statute miles.
    • Dense fog: Fog is the suspension of small water droplets/ice crystals near the Earth’s surface (at eye level), causing for low visibilities. To be considered dense fog, visibilities must be reduced to below 1/4 statute miles.
    • Light/moderate freezing fog: Freezing fog is the suspension of supercooled water droplets near the Earth’s surface (at eye level), causing low visibilities. Freezing for can only occur while air temperatures are below the freezing mark – the supercooled water droplets deposit themselves on surfaces and cause accretion of ice. To be considered light or moderate freezing fog, visibilities must be reduced to between 1/2 statute miles and 1/4 statute miles.
    • Dense freezing fog: Freezing fog is the suspension of supercooled water droplets near the Earth’s surface (at eye level), causing low visibilities. Freezing for can only occur while air temperatures are below the freezing mark – the supercooled water droplets deposit themselves on surfaces and cause accretion of ice. To be considered dense freezing fog, visibilities must be reduced to below 1/4 statute miles.
    • Light/moderate drifting snow: Particles of snow are raised by the wind near the ground’s surface, causing for the snow to hide sections of the ground surfaces, such as the roadway. Typically, visibilities at eye level are not affected by drifting snow.
    • Heavy drifting snow: Particles of snow are raised by the wind near the ground’s surface, causing for the snow to hide all the ground’s surface, such as the roadway. Typically, visibilities at eye level are not affected by drifting snow.
    • Light/moderate blowing snow: Snow particles are raised by the wind to at least the eye level height, causing visibilities to be reduced to at least 6 statute miles. Light or moderate blowing snow is reported when blowing snow is causing visibilities to be reduced to between 6 statute miles and 1/4 statute miles.
    • Heavy blowing snow: Snow particles are raised by the wind to at least the eye level height, causing heavy blowing snow and visibilities to be reduced to less than 1/4 statute miles.